Walid Tawfik, is Egyptian associate Professor, in laser spectroscopy and ultrafast lasers at the National Institute of Laser (NILES), Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. In 1994 he joined NILES as staff member and promoted as assistant lecturer, assistant professor and associate Professor in 1996, 2000 and 2008, respectively. He has received the BSC, Master and PhD degrees in physics, laser physics and laser spectroscopy in 1992, 1996, 2000, respectively, from Cairo University, Egypt. He is interested in the field of ultrafast lasers and ultrafast phenomenon.
In recent years, several techniques have been applied since the “war on cancer” was pronounced. Advanced laser spectroscopic methods for creating and controlling specific nanoparticles have been performed to treat and diagnose cancer cells. Numerous laser based spectroscopic methods have been applied to identify breast cancer like; Laser-induced fluorescence, laser Raman scattering and laser photoacoustic spectroscopy. Aside from individual differences that result in normal variations in lipids and glycogen, a clear distinction between normal and malignant tissues can be observed. The obtained absorption spectra were observed using FTIR-Raman Spectrometer technique from different samples of breast tumors with normal spectra reveals very important features that can be applied as diagnostic techniques. The results of the applied methods are comparable with the conventional techniques like biopsy etc. Laser irradiation methods were applied to sensitize and control nanoparticles propertied which are needed for treatment of cancers. The observed results will be used to improve the prospective methods to study how nanoparticles can be used as molecular imaging agents to detect and monitor cancer progression in future.
Zainab Khanum has her expertise in transcriptomics. Her research interests include developmental genetics and human cancers related functional genomics. She is a Biotechnology graduate from University of Karachi, Pakistan. She is currently enrolled in PhD program at International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Pakistan. She has expertise in manual extraction of high quality total RNA, next generation mRNA sequencing and bioinformatics. She looks forward to conduct her future research on projects that will benefit the health sector, agriculture sector and economy of her country.
Langra mango fruit is the export quality variety of Pakistan. This variety is well known for its taste and aroma. Much of the transcriptomics work has been conducted on the ripening physiology of the mango fruit but there has been less focus on the mango organogenesis. To better understand the temporal and spatial dynamics during the mango fruit’s development, the plant’s developmental genetics approach was followed. This approach involved mRNA sequencing by using the SOLiD 5500TM Genetic Analyzer platform. De novo transcriptome assembly and de novo transcript quantification was carried out for eight different developmental stages of a Langra mango fruit by using SATRAP assembler pipeline and RSEM, respectively. BLASTx program for NCBI nr-database, KAAS and BlastKOALA tools were used for gene functional annotation and metabolic pathways identification. Simple sequence repeats in transcripts were identified by GMATA software. This revealed a repertoire of up-regulated gene families during development with no prior literature support. Around ten gene families are enriched during the Langra mango fruit’s development. Up-regulated genes involved in plant’s development, embryogenesis and immune response were classified, especially the GIGANTEA (GI) nuclear protein gene. GI gene is climate and photoperiod regulated and is a key player in plant’s circadian clock control, flowering time regulation, drought tolerance and salt tolerance. Up-regulated gene products were also classified which are responsible for ROS control and have nutraceutical properties including defense against cancers and human pathogens. The Langra mango fruit’s developmental transcriptome was also compared with the mango transcriptomes from Pakistan, China and Mexico.